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Gülay Karadere (Dipl.-Psych.)
+49 (0)651 201-4934
Bicycle Drawing Test
The BDT is used as a screening tool for the assessment of visuo-constructive performance in a clinical-neuropsychological setting. The method aims at imaging cognitive disorders in patients with cerebral damage. It goes back to works by Piaget (1930), who interpreted the bicycle drawing test as a measure of higher conceptual thinking; "cognitive maturity" in children is (also) expressed in the understanding of mechanical functions. According to Lezak (1983, 1995), the BDT captures the specific cognitive functions "mechanical understanding" and "visuo-constructive functional level". The BDT contains 20 items that refer to individual features of the free drawings. Reliability: A very high product-moment correlation of r = .95 was found as a measure of judgment agreement. Retestreliability was rtt = .58 (one-day interval) or rtt = .73 (three-day interval). Validity: The test shows a high visual validity and closeness to everyday life. The correlation with the age of the patients was r = -.32. Patients with purely right hemispheric lesions showed on average 2.3 points higher BDT point values than patients with purely left hemispheric lesions. To test construct validity, correlations of the BDT with numerous standardized neuropsychological examination procedures were also determined. Regardless of the handiness or lateralization of the brain damage, the drawings predominantly showed a "right-left orientation". (i.e. saddle right, handlebar left).
Leibniz Institute for Psychology (ZPID). (2019). Open Test Archive: BDT. Bicycle Drawing Test. Available at: https://www.testarchiv.eu/en/test/9006149
Diederich, C. & Merten, T. (2012). BDT. Bicycle Drawing Test [Verfahrensdokumentation, Katalog mit Bewertungskriterien Deutsch, Katalog mit Bewertungskriterien Englisch, Protokollbogen Deutsch und Englisch]. In Leibniz-Institut für Psychologie (ZPID) (Hrsg.), Open Test Archive. Trier: ZPID.
Short Name BDT
English Name Bicycle Drawing Test
Authors Diederich, C., Merten, T.
Published in Test archive 2012
Copyright/Licence Copyright Authors; CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0
Key words Neuropsychology, Brain Damage, Drawing
Language versions deu eng
Construct Physical causality (Piaget, 1970)
Application age Children and adults possible
Item number 20 items
Subscales None; Visuo-constructive performances
Application Time No time limit.
Interpretation time No information.
Retestreliability: rtt = .58 (one-day interval), rtt = .73 (three-day interval).
Face validity; Mean differences between patients with different lateralization of brain damage; Findings on construct validity.
Applications Clinical diagnostics, Research
There is no abstract in English available. Short information about the measure can be found under Overview. More can be found on the German pages.
There is no review in English available. Short information about the measure can be found under Overview. More can be found on the German pages.
First published in
Diederich, C. & Merten, T. (2009). Fahrrad-Zeichen-Tests und ihr Einsatz in der neuropsychologischen Diagnostik. Zeitschrift für Neuropsychologie, 20 (4), 295-304.
Feedback on the use of a procedure from the Open Test Archive of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology (ZPID) to the test author(s)
Dr. Thomas Merten, Vivantes Netzwerk für Gesundheit, Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Klinik für Neurologie, Landsberger Allee 49, D-10249 Berlin