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Gülay Karadere (Dipl.-Psych.)
+49 (0)651 201-4934
The self-monitoring scale consists of 25 items and measures the ability to adjust and adapt one's own behavior to external circumstances and situations. This includes sensitivity to the expressive behavior and appearance of other people and the ability to use this information to control one's own self-presentation. In the sense of a competent and flexible appearance, this ability has a high professional relevance. Self-monitoring is a construct that belongs to the family of self-theories and is based on the assumption that people observe their behaviour and adapt it to situational conditions. Reliability: An internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson formula 20) of rtt = .69 resulted for the 25-item version and one of rtt = .71 for the revised 18-item version. Validity: To validate the translated self-monitoring scale, the correlations of the scale with the individual scales of the German version of the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (ICQ) were checked and the results of the SMS/D were compared with those of the SMS. As expected on the basis of the results of other studies, only low correlations of the SMS/D in the 25-item version with the scales of the ICQ and slightly higher correlations in the 18-item version were found
Graf, A. (2009). SMS/D. Self-Monitoring-Skala [Verfahrensdokumentation aus PSYNDEX Tests-Nr. 9005245 und Fragebogen mit Kurzfassung]. In Leibniz-Zentrum für Psychologische Information und Dokumentation (ZPID) (Hrsg.), Elektronisches Testarchiv. Trier: ZPID.
Short Name SMS/D
English Name Self-Monitoring Scale - German version
Authors Graf, A.
Published in Test archive 2009
Copyright/Licence Copyright Autoren; CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0
Key words Impression Management, Self-Monitoring (Personality), Social Interaction, Empathy, Social Skills, Self-Management, Self-Control
Language versions deu
Application age Adults; possibly adolescents with cognitive maturity
Item number 25 items; 18 items (short version)
Subscales None; self-monitoring
Application time Less than 10 minutes (25 item version).
Interpretation time A few minutes.
Reliability Internal consistency: (Kuder-Richardson formula 20) rtt = .69 (25 item version), rtt = .71 (18 item version).
Validity Findings on convergent validity.
Applications Assessment Center
There is no abstract in English available. Short information about the measure can be found under Overview. More can be found on the German pages.
There is no review in English available. Short information about the measure can be found under Overview. More can be found on the German pages.
First published in
Graf, A. (2004). Eine deutschsprachige Version der Self-Monitoring-Skala. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 48 (3), 109-121.
Feedback on the use of a procedure from the Open Test Archive of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology (ZPID) to the test author(s)
Prof. Dr. Andrea Graf, Ostfalia Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften, Hochschule Braunschweig/Wolfenbüttel, Fakultät Recht - Brunswick European Law School, Institut für Personalmanagement und Recht, Salzdahlumer Straße 46/48, Gebäude K (Kubus), D-38302 Wolfenbüttel
Mark Snyder, Ph.D., McKnight Presidential Chair in Psychology, University of Minnesota, Psychology Department, N218 Elliott Hall, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0344, USA