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Gülay Karadere (Dipl.-Psych.)
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Mannheimer Craving Scale
The MaCS is used for the quantitative measurement of craving with different single substances, combined and/or multiple substance use. It consists of 12 items and four additional items. Reliability: In the clinical groups, good coefficients of internal consistency (alpha above .85) were found in accordance with the stability test. Retest coefficients were in the range of .45 < rtt < .68 (clinical group) and rtt = .76 (non-clinical group). Validity: There were significant differences in MaCS scores over time and between treatment groups, in line with expectations. The MaCS score correlates with the validity criteria in a highly significant manner and in line with expectations: With the strength of the craving (analog scale) at r = .56, with the maximum craving (analog scale) at r = .59, with the frequency of craving (analog scale) at r = .54; with the abstinence time (days) at r = -.23; with the withdrawal symptoms (RS-EMS) at r = .56, without substantial differences between the consumption groups or therapy units. Norms: Based on the comparison of the clinical sample (N = 292) with the non-clinical sample (N = 616) a first normalization and calculation of cut-off values was performed.
Nakovics, H., Diehl, A., Geiselhart, H. & Mann, K. (2012). MaCS. Mannheimer Craving Scale [Verfahrensdokumentation aus PSYNDEX Tests-Nr. 9006132 und Fragebogen]. In Leibniz-Zentrum für Psychologische Information und Dokumentation (ZPID) (Hrsg.), Elektronisches Testarchiv. Trier: ZPID.
Short Name MaCS
English Name Mannheim Craving Scale
Authors Nakovics, H., Diehl, A., Geiselhart, H., Mann, K.
Published in Test archive 2012
Copyright/Licence Copyright Autoren; CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0
Key words Addiction, Craving, Obsessions, Self-Control
Application age 19-67 years old
Item number 12 (+ 4 additional) items
Subscales None; Craving
Application time ca. 5 min.
Interpretation time No information.
Reliability Internal consistency: Cronbach's alpha above .85. Retest reliability: rtt = .45-.68 (clinical group), rtt = .76 (non-clinical group).
Validity Mean value differences over time and between consumer groups. Correlations with the strength, extent and frequency of craving, with the abstinence period (days) and with withdrawal symptoms (RS-EMS).
Norms Clinical sample (N = 292) vs. non-clinical sample (N = 616); cut-off values
Applications Research, Practice
There is no abstract in English available. Information about the measure can be found under Overview.
There is no complete review in English available. Further information about the measure can also be found under Overview.
First published in
Nakovics, H., Diehl, A., Geiselhart, H. & Mann, K. (2009). Entwicklung und Validierung eines Instrumentes zur substanzunabhängigen Erfassung von Craving: Die Mannheimer Craving Scale (MaCS). Psychiatrische Praxis, 36 (2), 72-78.
Feedback on the use of a procedure from the Open Test Archive of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology (ZPID) to the test author(s)
Dr. Helmut Nakovics, Zentralinstitut für Seelische Gesundheit, Medizinische Fakultät Mannheim/Universität Heidelberg, J 5, D-68159 Mannheim
PD Dr. Alexander Diehl, Psychiatrische Klinik Städtisches Klinikum Braunschweig, Salzdahlumer Straße 90, D-38126 Braunschweig