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Gülay Karadere (Dipl.-Psych.)
+49 (0)651 201-4934
The questionnaire is designed for use in justice motivational research as well as in research on beliefs in justice, willingness to prosocial action, coping behaviour and much more. The GWPER comprises seven items. Reliability: The test-retest correlation in a sample of high school students (n = 215, 9th to 12th grade) was rtt = .58 (p < .001) for a period of five to eight months. The GWPER proved to be homogeneous in seven studies. Cronbach's alpha varied between alpha = .82 and alpha = .91. In a heterogeneous total sample of N = 818 Germans, which was heterogeneous in terms of age, sex and life situation, alpha was .86. Validity: In three studies involving a total of 585 persons, factor analysis using the items of the General and Personal Just World Scales enabled two factors to be identified on each of which the items of the two scales loaded in a perfect simple structure. The GWPER was discriminately valid against the general belief in a just world. The construct validity of the GWPER is evidenced by its significant relationships to well-being, self-esteem, and personal striving for justice, as well as by school-specific perceptions of justice and perceptions of justice by juvenile offenders.
Dalbert, C. (2002). GWPER. Persönliche Gerechte-Welt-Skala [Verfahrensdokumentation aus PSYNDEX Tests-Nr. 9004488, Fragebogen Deutsch und Englisch]. In Leibniz-Zentrum für Psychologische Information und Dokumentation (ZPID) (Hrsg.), Elektronisches Testarchiv. Trier: ZPID.
Short Name GWPER
English Name Personal Belief in a Just World Scale (PBJW)
Authors Dalbert, C.
Published in Test archive 2002
Copyright/Licence Copyright Autoren; CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0
Key words Prosocial Behavior, Cognitive Dissonance, Cognitions, Justice, Morality, Social Equality, World View, Attitudes, Personal Values, Well Being, Attribution
Construct Belief in the just world (Lerner, 1980)
Application age 10 years and older
Item number 7 items
Subscales None; Just World Belief
Application time approx. 5 min.
Interpretation time A few minutes.
Reliability Test-retest correlations: rtt = .58 (p < .001; 5-8 months)
Validity Findings on factorial and discriminant validity and constant validity.
Norms None; Reference data: gender-specific mean (M), standard error (SE) and median.
There is no abstract in English available. Information about the measure can be found under Overview.
There is no complete review in English available. Further information about the measure can also be found under Overview.
- I believe that, by and large, I deserve what happens to me.
- I am usually treated fairly.
- I believe that I usually get what I deserve.
- Overall, events in my life are just.
- In my life injustice is the exception rather than the rule.
- I believe that most of the things that happen in my life are fair.
- I think that important decisions that are made concerning me are usually just.
First published in
Dalbert, C. (1999). The world is more just for me than generally: About the Personal Belief in a Just World Scale's validity. Social Justice Research, 12, 79-98.
Feedback on the use of a procedure from the Open Test Archive of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology (ZPID) to the test author(s)
Ministerin Prof. Dr. Claudia Dalbert, Universität Halle, Pädagogische Psychologie, Franckeplatz 1, Haus 5, D-06099 Halle (Saale)